Yes. Frogs actually do live in the Arctic! One very developed frog -- the Wood frog -- has found its way to Alaska, Yukon and the Northwest Territories. Bear in mind frogs are amphibian, meaning they are unable to produce body heat, so the wood frog has evolved a rather astonishing method to survive the ferocious winters.
It freezes alive!
Two thirds of the water in its entire body is frozen solid most of the year. Hair from most Arctic, animals is not white, but clear, hollow and full of air making it easier for them to stay warm!
Pretty amazing stuff. Especially considering how cells burst and break causing frostbite once they freeze.. So how can it be possible for the frog to survive?
It is not the cells of the wood frogs that freezes, the ice forms in the spaces between the cells! The organs of the frog are surrounded by a mass of ice keeping them nice & cool without damaging them. This way the frogs "hibernate" without any body functions for which it would need energy. There is no heartbeat, it does not breathe and if you cut into it does not bleed! As the temperature gets warm in the late spring they recover life! How the freezing is "controlled" is still a mystery though.
This is what you call a highly developed arctic adaptation. Adaptation basically means "how an animal changes according to the environment it lives in". Biologists talk about two types of adaptations. One form of adaptation, called physiological adaptation, involves how one animal can change for example its behavior or habits because of sudden change in environment. The other kind of adaptation, discussed here, happens over many generations and is called evolutionary adaptation.
How does evolutionary adaptation work? To make a very long story short, evolutionary adaptations are the results of the competition among animals of the same breed or different breeds over many generations in response to an ever-changing environment. Certain traits -- certain things about the animal -- are culled by natural selection, favoring those animals that produce the most offspring. This is such a broad concept that, theoretically, all the features of any animal or plant could be considered adaptive. As the guy Charles Darwin - who was the first to put these thoughts on paper - says himself "..The leaves, trunk, and roots of a tree all arose by selection and help the individual tree in its competition for space, soil, and sunlight.."
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